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Overview of the FTC’s Final Rule on Non-Compete Clauses

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has recently issued a final rule that marks a significant shift in the landscape of employment contracts in the United States. This rule fundamentally changes how non-compete clauses are treated, with profound implications for employers and workers alike. Here, we explore the details of this rule, its rationale, and the potential impacts on the labor market.

Background and Rationale

The new regulation arises from growing concerns about the broad application of non-compete clauses, especially their use against low-wage workers and in industries where they arguably stifle innovation and mobility unnecessarily. Historically, non-compete agreements have been justified as a means to protect business interests, such as safeguarding trade secrets and investments in employee training. However, empirical research and public commentary have increasingly suggested that these agreements can depress wages, hinder job mobility, and limit competition.

Key Provisions of the Rule

Key Provisions of the Rule

The FTC's final rule addresses these concerns head-on by instituting a near-total ban on non-compete agreements for workers. Here are the central tenets of the regulation:

  1. Prohibition of New Non-Competes: Employers are prohibited from entering into, enforcing, or even suggesting non-compete clauses with any of their workers, whether they are employees, contractors, or any other type of worker, after the rule's effective date.

  2. Nullification of Existing Non-Competes: All existing non-compete agreements entered into before the rule's effective date will become unenforceable. This provision aims to free current workers from the constraints of non-competes they are already bound by.

  3. Exemptions: The rule carves out an exception for non-competes tied to the dissolution of a business or the sale of a business entity, where the restricted party is a substantial owner, member, or partner in the business at the time of sale. This recognizes the legitimate interest in protecting the buyer's acquired business goodwill.

  4. Notification Requirement: Employers are required to inform workers that their existing non-compete agreements will no longer be enforceable under the new rule. The FTC provides model language to help employers comply with this notification requirement.

For detailed information and the full text of the rule, refer to the FTC's official document on the non-compete rule.

Expected Impacts of the Rule

Expected Impacts of the Rule

According to the FTC, the final rule is anticipated to generate significant economic benefits:

  • Creation of New Businesses: The FTC estimates an increase in new business formation by 2.7% per year, translating to over 8,500 new businesses annually.
  • Increase in Worker Wages: The average worker's earnings are expected to rise by approximately $524 per year.
  • Reduction in Healthcare Costs: Healthcare costs could be lowered by up to $194 billion over the next decade due to increased competition and innovation in the market.
  • Boost in Innovation: The rule could lead to an estimated 17,000 to 29,000 additional patents issued annually for the next ten years.

These impacts underscore the rule's potential to enhance economic dynamism and innovation across various sectors.

Implications for Employers and Employees

The implications of this sweeping change are multifaceted:

  • Increased Worker Mobility: Workers will have the freedom to move between jobs without the fear of legal repercussions, which could lead to better job matches and increased wage competition among employers.
  • Challenges for Employers: Businesses will need to find new ways to protect their intellectual property and investment in employee training without relying on non-compete clauses. This may involve more reliance on other types of agreements, such as non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) and non-solicitation agreements, which are not affected by this rule.
  • Potential Legal Challenges: The rule is likely to face legal challenges from various stakeholders, including businesses and trade associations, who may argue that the FTC has overstepped its regulatory authority or that the rule is too broad and infringes on state laws.
Legal and Practical Considerations for Compliance

Legal and Practical Considerations for Compliance

As businesses adapt to the FTC's final rule on non-compete clauses, several legal and practical considerations must be addressed to ensure compliance while still protecting legitimate business interests.

Revising Employment Contracts

Immediate Review and Revision: Businesses should conduct a thorough review of all current employment agreements and policies to identify any provisions that involve non-compete clauses. These agreements will need to be revised or redrafted to remove or modify these clauses in compliance with the new rule.

Alternatives to Non-Competes: Employers may need to consider alternative contractual provisions such as non-disclosure agreements (NDAs), which protect confidential business information without restricting former employees' ability to work in the same industry. Non-solicitation agreements may also be utilized to prevent former employees from poaching clients or colleagues, although these must also be crafted carefully to avoid violating the new regulations.

Legal Challenges and State Law

Anticipating Legal Challenges: Employers should prepare for potential legal challenges to the FTC rule. This includes staying informed about ongoing litigation that may affect the applicability or enforcement of the rule, as well as understanding how state-specific laws interact with federal regulations.

Navigating Federal and State Regulations: Businesses must navigate the complex interplay between the FTC's rule and varying state laws regarding non-compete agreements. Some states have already restricted or banned non-competes for certain workers or industries, and these state laws can complement or complicate compliance efforts.

Human Resources and Management Training

Training for Compliance: Human resources professionals and managers need training on the implications of the new rule to ensure they understand the changes and how to communicate these to current and future employees. This includes revising hiring practices to ensure that new contracts are in compliance and that all staff involved in hiring are aware of the prohibitions against non-competes.

Monitoring and Enforcement: Companies should establish monitoring mechanisms to ensure ongoing compliance with both the FTC rule and any relevant state laws. This may include regular audits of employment contracts and company policies.


The FTC's final rule on non-compete clauses represents a landmark change in federal employment policy. It reflects a significant shift towards enhancing worker mobility and promoting competition in the labor market. Employers must now reassess their employment contracts and strategies for protecting business interests, while workers can look forward to new opportunities for advancement and freedom in their career choices.

For more detailed information on how this may impact your specific situation, or to discuss alternative strategies for protecting your business interests, contact Heritage Law Office directly at 414-253-8500 to speak with a knowledgeable attorney.

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the FTC's final rule on non-compete clauses?

The FTC's final rule on non-compete clauses prohibits employers from entering into, enforcing, or suggesting non-compete agreements with any of their employees, contractors, or any type of worker, effective from the date the rule is implemented. This rule aims to enhance worker mobility, increase competition, and foster innovation across various industries.

2. Who is affected by the new FTC rule on non-competes?

The new FTC rule impacts nearly all workers in the United States, except for senior executives who represent less than 0.75% of the workforce. For these senior executives, existing non-competes can remain in force, but new non-compete agreements cannot be formed or enforced.

3. What are the expected economic impacts of banning non-compete agreements?

The FTC estimates that the banning of non-compete agreements will lead to the creation of over 8,500 new businesses annually and increase worker earnings by an average of $524 per year. It is also expected to boost innovation significantly, potentially leading to between 17,000 and 29,000 new patents each year.

4. Are there alternatives to non-compete agreements that employers can use?

Yes, employers have several alternatives to protect their business interests without non-compete agreements. These include non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) to safeguard confidential information and non-solicitation agreements to prevent poaching of clients and colleagues. These alternatives help maintain competitive advantages while complying with the new FTC regulations.

5. How can employers comply with the FTC's non-compete rule?

Employers can comply with the FTC's non-compete rule by reviewing and revising their existing employment contracts to remove or adjust non-compete clauses. They must also notify current employees affected by previous non-compete agreements that these will no longer be enforceable. Employers should consider enhancing wages and improving working conditions to retain talent competitively.

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